Ancient Greek Sculpture

Geometrics:
Greeks made sculpture to represent how beautiful the Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece were. The scupltures were usually made out of wood, ivory, terracotta, and bronzes. The bronze scupltures were usually tripod vases and cauldrons.
There are no inscriptions on early to middle geometric sculpture until the appearance of the "Apollo" (Boston 03.997) of the early 7th century found in Thebes. This is a standing figure of a man with an almost daedalic form with the legend "Mantiklos offers me as a tithe to Apollo of the silver bow; do you, Phoibos, give some pleasing favour in return" across his thighs in hexameter verse. Apart from the novelty of recording its own purpose this sculpture it adapts the formulae of oriental bronzes as seen in the shorter more triangular face and slightly advancing left leg. This is sometimes seen as anticipating the greater expressive freedom of the 7th century and as such the Mantiklos figure is referred to in some quarters as proto-daedalic.​
Daedalic- Proto-Daedalic, early, middle, and late Daedalic
Archaic- Egyptian influence, Naxian, Samian, Attic, Argive and Parian kouroi, architectural scuplture, the Dying Warrior, Kleobis and Biton.
Classical- Contrapposto, severe style, high classical, Rick style, Late Classical Plain style.
The Sculptor Polykleitos could be given the name as the creator of the Classical Period. He created works with a true naturalism and balance, unlike the rigid poses of the Archaic period. He was the first to use ideas of scale and mathematical proportions in order to create the perfectly proportioned figure, referred to as "The Polykleitan Canon of Proportion". Polykleitos was very influential in Greek Sculpture, his realistic proportions were recognised by other sculptors such as Skopas and Lysippos who successfully followed him using the ideas set out in his canon.

Lysippos was the successor of Polykleitos; he took the ideas used in creating perfect proportions and gave rise to the "Lysippan Canon of Proportion". Lysippos noted a greater realism could be captured in making the heads of his figures smaller as well as elongating the body, creating much more realistic sculptures; which was his primary aim. His scrutinising attention to detail emphasised this desire to make his sculptures as realistic as possible. This sense of realism brought about the transition into the Hellenistic Period where use of the Lysippan canon of proportion and Contrapposto created extreme realism.

Creating realistic proportions was not the only way used to create statues as life like as possible. A perfectly proportioned figure will still look unnatural if in a rigid and unrelaxed pose. In the late classical period a combination of Contrapposto and "in the round" compositions (intended to be seen from multiple angles) created more interesting and natural poses. This was sparked by the sculptor Praxiteles, with his creation of the "Praxitelean curve" or Contrapposto. His fundamental aim was to create fluidity within the pose by changing from the conventional parallels of the shoulders, hips and knees to sloping angles. These angles, as seen in figures such as "Kritios Boy"- Early Classical Sculpture- and "Venus Braschi" (the first female nude) were much more comparable to the anatomy in real life, further emphasising naturalism and movement. This was a major step towards the extreme realism of the Hellenistic period.

The Legacy

The influence on modern art today is effected by Ancient Greek art and sculpture because today in the western civilizations we focus a lot on shape, porportions, and we use fine details. The reason that we use fine details today, and why they used them back in Ancient Greece is because we like to show the shape and the way the actual human body looks. We use definition of muscles and shape to show how beautiful the human body is in its natural form.
Sculptures​

​Female:
Diplax
Diplax
Pallas over the peplos
Pallas over the peplos
Chiton
Chiton


Male:

Chlamys
Chlamys